George Lakoff Famous Quotes & Sayings

100 George Lakoff Famous Sayings, Quotes and Quotation.

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To the conservative, immoral behavior is attributable to individual character, not to social causes: What is right and what is wrong are clear, and the question is whether you are morally strong enough to do what's right. It's a matter of character. Conservatives believe that if an extreme conservative commits a crime, say killing people, in the name of vigilante justice, then conservatism itself cannot be held to blame, nor can those who spew hate over the airwaves. The explanation instead is that that individual had a bad character, that is, a bad moral essence; either that or he was crazy, craziness being a different kind of moral essence. George Lakoff Sayings: To the conservative, immoral behavior is attributable to individual character, not to social causes: What
At the highest level, there is the general Subject-Self metaphor, which conceptualizes a person as bifurcated. The exact nature of this bifurcation is specified more precisely one level down, where there are five specific instances of the metaphor. These five special cases of the basic Subject-Self metaphor are grounded in four types of everyday experience: (1) manipulating objects, (2) being located in space, (3) entering into social relations, and (4) empathic projection-conceptually projecting yourself onto someone else, as when a child imitates a parent. The fifth special case comes from the Folk Theory of Essences: Each person is seen as having an Essence that is part of the Subject. The person may have more than one Self, but only one of those Selves is compatible with that Essence. This is called the "real" or "true" Self. George Lakoff Sayings: At the highest level, there is the general Subject-Self metaphor, which conceptualizes a person as
[T]he whole undertaking of philosophical inquiry requires a prior understanding of the conceptual system in which the undertaking is set. That is an empirical job for cognitive science and cognitive semantics ... Unless this job is done, we will not know whether the answers philosophers give to their questions are a function of the conceptualization built into the questions themselves. George Lakoff Sayings: [T]he whole undertaking of philosophical inquiry requires a prior understanding of the conceptual system in
The rich are thus not just more powerful than the poor, they also have moral authority over the poor and with it the moral responsibility to tell the poor how to live: build self-discipline, work hard, climb the economic ladder, and so become self-reliant. M George Lakoff Sayings: The rich are thus not just more powerful than the poor, they also have moral
Conservatives want to eliminate the EPA on the grounds that government should encourage and reward free enterprise, not constrain and punish it. This fits the conservative view of nature as being there to serve private interests. Solutions to as many problems as possible should come out of free enterprise solutions that reward self-discipline and enterprise, rather than out of government-imposed constraints that punish enterprising companies through regulation. Or George Lakoff Sayings: Conservatives want to eliminate the EPA on the grounds that government should encourage and reward
As we pointed out, the common principles of conservative thought make up a list crying out for an explanation of how they fit together: smaller government; strong defense; lower taxes; traditional family values; personal responsibility; and free markets. As we have seen, these all flow from a strict father morality. Finally, George Lakoff Sayings: As we pointed out, the common principles of conservative thought make up a list crying
Affirmative action is about fairness, for redressing widespread unfairness. Conservatives George Lakoff Sayings: Affirmative action is about fairness, for redressing widespread unfairness. Conservatives
The Strict Father model takes as background the view that life is difficult and that the world is fundamentally dangerous. George Lakoff Sayings: The Strict Father model takes as background the view that life is difficult and that
We know that someone who has channeled his anger into something constructive has not had a cow. How do we know these things? George Lakoff Sayings: We know that someone who has channeled his anger into something constructive has not had
One can be both free and economically secure while leading a totally meaningless and empty existence. George Lakoff Sayings: One can be both free and economically secure while leading a totally meaningless and empty
Since most of our moral understanding comes, via metaphor, from a broad range of other domains of experience, and since we apply those metaphors to a number of different experiential domains, we should be wary of trying to compartmentalize ethics. The cross-domain mappings of the metaphors suggest the intricate web of connections that impose our moral ideas on other aspects of our lives, including considerations that are technical, scientific, political, aesthetic, religious, and social. George Lakoff Sayings: Since most of our moral understanding comes, via metaphor, from a broad range of other
The government is commonly conceptualized as a business. If it is seen as a service industry, taxes can be seen as payment for services provided to the public. Those services can include protection (by the military, the criminal justice system, and regulatory agencies), adjudication of disputes (by the judiciary and other agencies), social insurance (as in Social Security and Medicare and various "safety nets"), and so on. Under George Lakoff Sayings: The government is commonly conceptualized as a business. If it is seen as a service
Advocates of Strict Father morality show such a resentment of illegitimate authority, not just toward meddling parents but toward any moral authority seen to be illegitimately meddling in their lives. The federal government is a common target. We regularly hear arguments that the federal government doesn't know what's best for people, that people know what's best for themselves, and that the government is not acting in the interests of ordinary people. Therefore, federal authority should be shifted to local governments or eliminated altogether. It George Lakoff Sayings: Advocates of Strict Father morality show such a resentment of illegitimate authority, not just toward
A primary function of the Strict Father model is the protection of innocent children. Opposition to abortion provides an ideal opportunity to assert a protective function and justify Strict Father morality. George Lakoff Sayings: A primary function of the Strict Father model is the protection of innocent children. Opposition
Any policy that gives people things they haven't earned is seen as immoral, because it lessens the incentive to be self-disciplined. From this perspective, affirmative action looks immoral to conservatives, on the grounds that it gives preferential treatment to women and minorities. It is a relatively direct consequence of the Strict Father model. The George Lakoff Sayings: Any policy that gives people things they haven't earned is seen as immoral, because it
The point of this example is that policy debates are not matters of rational discussion on the basis of literal and objective categories. The categories that shape the debate are moral categories; those categories are defined in terms of different family-based conceptions of morality, which give priority to different metaphors for morality. The debate is not a matter of objective, means-end rationality or cost-benefit analysis or effective public policy. It is not just a debate about the particular issue, namely, college loans. The debate is about the right form of morality, and that in turn comes down to the question of the right model of the family. George Lakoff Sayings: The point of this example is that policy debates are not matters of rational discussion
Obama's statements also use a narrative structure, complete with heroes and villains: Ending the estate tax is a threat to the most vulnerable people - taking away money for what they desperately need. They are the victims. The villains are those who would take it from them - conservative legislators and some of the nation's wealthiest families, who have spent tens of millions to lobby for the repeal of this tax. The hero, the rescuer, is you, the voter, who can change the course of the nation. Persuade your legislators to vote for what is moral, and turn them out of office if they refuse to do the right thing. The George Lakoff Sayings: Obama's statements also use a narrative structure, complete with heroes and villains: Ending the estate
The metaphor of Moral Strength sees the world in terms of a war of good against the forces of evil, which must be fought ruthlessly. Ruthless behavior in the name of the good fight is thus seen as justified. Moreover, the metaphor entails that one cannot respect the views of one's adversary: evil does not deserve respect, it deserves to be attacked! The George Lakoff Sayings: The metaphor of Moral Strength sees the world in terms of a war of good
Strict Father morality requires that there are natural, strict, uniform, unchanging standards of behavior that must be followed if society is to function. Another George Lakoff Sayings: Strict Father morality requires that there are natural, strict, uniform, unchanging standards of behavior that
Since the Strict Father model is what holds Strict Father morality together, interference with the pursuit of self-interest threatens the foundations of the whole Strict Father moral framework - from the efficacy of moral strength to the validity of the moral order. The George Lakoff Sayings: Since the Strict Father model is what holds Strict Father morality together, interference with the
Holding onto and manipulating physical objects is one of the things we learn earliest and do the most. It should not be surprising that object control is the basis of one of the five most fundamental metaphors for our inner life. To control objects, we must learn to control our bodies. We learn both forms of control together. Self-control and object control are inseparable experiences from earliest childhood. It is no surprise that we should have as a metaphor-a primary metaphor-Self Control is Object Control. George Lakoff Sayings: Holding onto and manipulating physical objects is one of the things we learn earliest and
In the Strict Father model, it is the duty of the strict father to protect his family above all else. By the Nation As Family metaphor, this implies that the major function of the government is, above all else, to protect the nation. That is why conservatives see the funding of the military as moral, while the funding of social programs is seen as immoral. There George Lakoff Sayings: In the Strict Father model, it is the duty of the strict father to protect
Our ordinary conceptual system, in terms of which we both think and act, is fundamentally metaphorical in nature. George Lakoff Sayings: Our ordinary conceptual system, in terms of which we both think and act, is fundamentally
Private enterprise and private life depend on nurturant morality, but so does freedom in American life. Freedom is what public resources provide - freedom in a way that we take for granted but that needs to be brought out in the open. George Lakoff Sayings: Private enterprise and private life depend on nurturant morality, but so does freedom in American
Aristotle, on the other hand, saw poetry as having a positive value: "It is a great thing, indeed, to make proper use of the poetic forms, . . . But the greatest thing by far is to be a master of metaphor" (Poetics 1459a); "ordinary words convey only what we know already; it is from metaphor that we can best get hold of something fresh" (Rhetoric 1410b). George Lakoff Sayings: Aristotle, on the other hand, saw poetry as having a positive value: "It is a
Prototype frames. Among the most important of the commonplace frames are the prototype frames, where you reason about a category on the basis of some subcategory (real or imagined). The best known is the social stereotype. For instance, both conservatives and progressives use stereotypes of immigrants, though very different ones. George Lakoff Sayings: Prototype frames. Among the most important of the commonplace frames are the prototype frames, where
The heart of the objectivist tradition in philosophy comes directly out of the myth of objectivism: the world is made up of distinct objects, with inherent properties and fixed relations among them at any instant. We argue, on the basis of linguistic evidence (especially metaphor), that the objectivist philosophy fails to account for the way we understand our experience, our thoughts, and our language. An George Lakoff Sayings: The heart of the objectivist tradition in philosophy comes directly out of the myth of
It is important to realize that the Social Nurturance metaphor and the Moral Nurturance metaphor may sometimes contradict each other, even though they form a natural pairing. This occurs when you have to maintain social ties with people in your community who do not believe in or operate by the Moral Nurturance metaphor. Compromising with such people for the sake of maintaining social ties may require compromising on moral nurturance. M George Lakoff Sayings: It is important to realize that the Social Nurturance metaphor and the Moral Nurturance metaphor
Rationalism pervades the progressive world. It is one of the reasons progressives have lately been losing to conservatives. Rationalist-based political campaigns miss the symbolic, metaphorical, moral, emotional, and frame-based aspects of political campaigns. George Lakoff Sayings: Rationalism pervades the progressive world. It is one of the reasons progressives have lately been
The logic of this metaphor is extremely important: Since diseases can spread through contact, it follows from the metaphor that immorality can spread through contact. Hence, immoral people must be kept away from moral people, lest they become immoral too. This is part of the logic behind urban flight, segregated neighborhoods, and strong sentencing guidelines even for nonviolent offenders. The same logic lies behind guilt-by-association arguments: If you are in contact with immoral people, you become immoral. M George Lakoff Sayings: The logic of this metaphor is extremely important: Since diseases can spread through contact, it
New ideas are never entirely new. They must make use of ideas already present in the culture. No conspiracy of the ultrarich explains why conservative ideas make sense to people and what sense they make. Fourth, George Lakoff Sayings: New ideas are never entirely new. They must make use of ideas already present in
Any truth must be in a humanly conceptualized and understandable form if it is to be a truth for us. If it's not a truth for us, how can we make sense of its being a truth at all? George Lakoff Sayings: Any truth must be in a humanly conceptualized and understandable form if it is to
Conservatives take the opposite approach. They start from the idea that self-discipline is fundamental. A lack of property to conservatives indicates a lack of discipline, and hence a lack of morality. Therefore, giving people things they haven't earned creates dependency, which traps people in welfare programs and poverty and thus robs them of their freedom. Not only that, but the taxes that pay for programs like Social Security and universal health care infringe on the freedom of the taxpayer, since taking his money is imposing on his freedom. What George Lakoff Sayings: Conservatives take the opposite approach. They start from the idea that self-discipline is fundamental. A
Metaphysics in philosophy is, of course, supposed to characterize what is real - literally real. The irony is that such a conception of the real depends upon unconscious metaphors. George Lakoff Sayings: Metaphysics in philosophy is, of course, supposed to characterize what is real - literally real.
Conservatives have long advanced the idea that our military can - and should - be used to shape foreign policy; our strength is the size and capacity of our military. They have advanced a retributive crime policy - punish the wrongdoers, no need to look at systemic causes of crime. The "war on terror" activates these deep frames, and politicians, the media, and the public continue to use the phrase because the conservative deep frames have become so pervasive. If George Lakoff Sayings: Conservatives have long advanced the idea that our military can - and should - be
Most conservatives are conservatives because they think they are morally correct. George Lakoff Sayings: Most conservatives are conservatives because they think they are morally correct.
One of the reasons that politics lets us down is that we keep comparing it to our ideal narratives, to politics on TV or in the movies, which is tidier and better fits such structures. George Lakoff Sayings: One of the reasons that politics lets us down is that we keep comparing it
Instead, progressives should speak in terms of the common concerns of voters - for instance, how a policy will let you send your daughter to college, or how it will let you launch your own business. 12. George Lakoff Sayings: Instead, progressives should speak in terms of the common concerns of voters - for instance,
Effective campaigns must communicate the candidates' values and use issues symbolically - as indicative of their moral values and their trustworthiness. Recall George Lakoff Sayings: Effective campaigns must communicate the candidates' values and use issues symbolically - as indicative of
Conservatives tend not to want to fund early childhood education. First, they see it as a government program to be destroyed. Second, they are concerned about what would be taught - perhaps not the subject matter of what would be taught in a strict father household. They want to be sure that children are taught a conservative way of looking at the world. Children George Lakoff Sayings: Conservatives tend not to want to fund early childhood education. First, they see it as
A serious appreciation of cognitive science requires us to rethink philosophy from the beginning, in a way that would put it more in touch with the reality of how we think ... Unless we know our cognitive unconscious fully and intimately, we can neither know ourselves nor truly understand the basis of our moral judgments, our conscious deliberations, and our philosophy. George Lakoff Sayings: A serious appreciation of cognitive science requires us to rethink philosophy from the beginning, in
Let us now turn to the question of the effects of physical punishment on children. This research should also not give solace to advocates of the Strict Father model. The major research indicates that having strict parents who perform painful corporal punishment in childhood leads to domestic violence, aggression, and delinquency in later life. Take George Lakoff Sayings: Let us now turn to the question of the effects of physical punishment on children.
In short, philosophical theories are largely the product of the hidden hand of the cognitive unconscious. George Lakoff Sayings: In short, philosophical theories are largely the product of the hidden hand of the cognitive
The self-righteous person's superfluity of moral credit is the basis of his discourse. He presupposes his own moral values and his own righteousness as a condition of conversation. The effect of this is that anyone talking to a self-righteous person must either agree with his moral values and act equally self-righteous, or face being put in a morally inferior position in the discourse. This is what makes self-righteous people particularly infuriating to talk to. F George Lakoff Sayings: The self-righteous person's superfluity of moral credit is the basis of his discourse. He presupposes
The consequence is that arguing simply in terms of facts - how many people have no health insurance, how many degrees Earth has warmed in the last decade, how long it's been since the last raise in the minimum wage - will likely fall on deaf ears. That's not to say the facts aren't important. They are extremely important. George Lakoff Sayings: The consequence is that arguing simply in terms of facts - how many people have
If progressive deep frames had been articulated and present in the public mind, the idea of a "war on terror" never would have made sense. If we viewed our strength as our diplomatic ability to forge international consensus and coalitions, and if we recognized that killing and maiming civilians through military action creates more terrorists and fosters more acts of terrorism, we wouldn't have looked to our military to solve the problem. Had progressive deep frames been prevalent at the time of 9/11, Americans would have taken "war on terror" as a powerful metaphor but not a literal guide to action, like the "war on poverty." They would have seen it as a major crime problem - like international organized crime - and sought to bring these criminals to justice by the means that work best, like tracing bank accounts, placing spies in their organizations, and so on. It George Lakoff Sayings: If progressive deep frames had been articulated and present in the public mind, the idea
It's about protection: The government should make sure we have healthy food. It's about equality: Good and healthy food should not be a luxury reserved for the rich. It's about diversity: having a polyculture system and distinctive varieties of food. It's an expansion of freedom: Everyone should have access to good food. It's using the common wealth for the common good to promote public health and increase quality of life. The George Lakoff Sayings: It's about protection: The government should make sure we have healthy food. It's about equality:
Science is fundamentally a moral enterprise, following the moral imperative to seek the truth. George Lakoff Sayings: Science is fundamentally a moral enterprise, following the moral imperative to seek the truth.
But to conservatives whose value system gives priority to Moral Strength, the problem of drugs is the personal lack of the moral strength to just say no. It is a problem of personal values, not of social change or drug treatment centers. George Lakoff Sayings: But to conservatives whose value system gives priority to Moral Strength, the problem of drugs
One of the things cognitive science teaches us is that when people define their very identity by a worldview, or a narrative, or a mode of thought, they are unlikely to change-for the simple reason that it is physically part of their brain, and so many other aspects of their brain structure would also have to change; that change is highly unlikely. George Lakoff Sayings: One of the things cognitive science teaches us is that when people define their very
Privatization and deregulation constitute the outsourcing of democratically elected government with a moral mission to corporations that have a profit-making mission. The effect is to turn democracy into corporatocracy. PROFIT George Lakoff Sayings: Privatization and deregulation constitute the outsourcing of democratically elected government with a moral mission to
Liberals conceptualize government regulation as the protection of those who cannot protect themselves - protection of citizens, workers, honest businessmen, and the environment against possible harm by unscrupulous or negligent businesses and individuals. Government regulation of business is there to be sure that businesses don't hurt or cheat anyone. George Lakoff Sayings: Liberals conceptualize government regulation as the protection of those who cannot protect themselves - protection
While it is not impossible to have a Nurturant Parent rationalist morality (perhaps certain versions of utilitarianism are of this sort), Reason is not typically understood as a nurturer. Reason commands, lays down the law, gives orders, judges, reprimands, and so on. We almost never conceive of it as nurturing, feeling, caring, and so forth. George Lakoff Sayings: While it is not impossible to have a Nurturant Parent rationalist morality (perhaps certain versions
The moral principles that have priority in each model appear in the other model, but with lesser priorities. Those lesser priorities drastically change the effect of those principles. George Lakoff Sayings: The moral principles that have priority in each model appear in the other model, but
Given the central position that the Morality of Reward and Punishment has in the conservative moral system, it is no surprise that conservatives in most cases prefer retribution over restitution as a form of justice, as a way of balancing the moral books. It is therefore no surprise that conservatives are in favor of the death penalty. It is a form of retribution, a life for a life. Liberals, George Lakoff Sayings: Given the central position that the Morality of Reward and Punishment has in the conservative
What takes the place of the strict rules of the Strict Father model is clarity of expectations and empathy. What takes the place of reward and punishment is interdependence, communication, and a true desire to remain affectionately connected to those you live with. F George Lakoff Sayings: What takes the place of the strict rules of the Strict Father model is clarity
Therefore, any social or political system in which people get things they don't earn, or are rewarded for lack of self-discipline or for immoral behavior, is simply an immoral system. George Lakoff Sayings: Therefore, any social or political system in which people get things they don't earn, or
For example, from 1968 to 1992 (with the exception of the Carter presidency), the voters selected a fairly conservative president and a fairly liberal Congress, creating what might be seen as a Strict Father executive and a Nurturant Mother Congress, thus reproducing a classic family model in the government, with strictness at the top and caring right below. Thus, George Lakoff Sayings: For example, from 1968 to 1992 (with the exception of the Carter presidency), the voters
What is punishment and theft to conservatives is civic duty and fairness to liberals. There George Lakoff Sayings: What is punishment and theft to conservatives is civic duty and fairness to liberals. There
Finally, Obama's remarks are carefully constructed to undermine the arguments of conservatives, who frame the social programs funded by taxation as government handouts to the undeserving. Obama flips the taxes-as-handouts frame on its head, to yield a frame in which tax breaks are handouts to the rich, and the estate tax is a transfer of wealth from ordinary taxpayers to wealthy individuals - a frame that tells a vital truth. It George Lakoff Sayings: Finally, Obama's remarks are carefully constructed to undermine the arguments of conservatives, who frame the
Unless you frame yourself, others will frame you - the media, your enemies, your competitors, your well-meaning friends. George Lakoff Sayings: Unless you frame yourself, others will frame you - the media, your enemies, your competitors,
For centuries, we in the West have thought of ourselves as rational animals whose mental capacities transcend our bodily nature. In this traditional view our minds are abstract, logical, unemotionally rational, consciously accessible, and, above all, able to directly fit and represent the world. Language has a special place in thie view of what a human is - it is a privileged, logical symbol system internal to our minds that transparently expresses abstract concepts that are defined in terms of the external world itself. George Lakoff Sayings: For centuries, we in the West have thought of ourselves as rational animals whose mental
The mind is inherently embodied.
Thought is mostly unconscious.
Abstract concepts are largely metaphorical.
George Lakoff Sayings: The mind is inherently embodied.Thought is mostly unconscious.Abstract concepts are largely metaphorical.
New metaphors are capable of creating new understandings and, therefore, new realities. This should be obvious in the case of poetic metaphor, where language is the medium through which new conceptual metaphors are created. George Lakoff Sayings: New metaphors are capable of creating new understandings and, therefore, new realities. This should be
Physical. In other words, we are understanding one thing in terms of something else of the same kind. But in conventional metaphor, we are understanding one thing in terms of something else of a different kind. In "Inflation has gone up," for example, we understand inflation (which is abstract) in terms of a physical substance, and we understand an increase of inflation (which is also abstract) in terms of a physical orientation (up). The only difference is whether our projection involves the same kinds of things or different kinds of things. George Lakoff Sayings: Physical. In other words, we are understanding one thing in terms of something else of
An important consequence of giving highest priority to the metaphor of Moral Strength is that it rules out any explanations in terms of social forces or social class. George Lakoff Sayings: An important consequence of giving highest priority to the metaphor of Moral Strength is that
You can't understand Twenty-first-Century Politics with an Eighteenth-Century Brain. George Lakoff Sayings: You can't understand Twenty-first-Century Politics with an Eighteenth-Century Brain.
Conservatives deny that the private depends on public resources. Citing Ronald Reagan's credo that "The Government is the Problem," conservatives are constantly trying to eliminate public resources and to privatize as much as possible. George Lakoff Sayings: Conservatives deny that the private depends on public resources. Citing Ronald Reagan's credo that "The
Concentrate on values and principles. Be authentic; stand up for what you really believe. Empathize and connect with the people you are talking to, on the basis of identity - their identity and yours. This George Lakoff Sayings: Concentrate on values and principles. Be authentic; stand up for what you really believe. Empathize
In the system of conservative moral categories, government regulation falls under interference with the pursuit of self-interest by people trying to make a living, people using their self-discipline to become self-reliant (and, if possible, rich). These are the good people in our society. We want to encourage people like them and it is wrong to put roadblocks in their way. The George Lakoff Sayings: In the system of conservative moral categories, government regulation falls under interference with the pursuit
Liberals: Liberty-loving liberals founded our country and enshrined its freedoms. Dedicated, fair-minded liberals ended slavery and brought women the vote. Hardworking liberals fought the goon squads and won workers' rights: the eight-hour day, the weekend, health plans, and pensions. Courageous liberals risked their lives to win civil rights. Caring liberals have made the vulnerable elderly secure with Social Security and healthy with Medicare. Forward-looking liberals have extended education to everyone. Liberals who love the land have been preserving our environment so you can enjoy it. Nobody loves liberty and life more than a liberal. When conservatives say you're on your own, we liberals know we're all in this together. "Liberal George Lakoff Sayings: Liberals: Liberty-loving liberals founded our country and enshrined its freedoms. Dedicated, fair-minded liberals ended slavery
When we use such metaphorically derived inference patterns to reason about morality, the principles we get and use are inextricably tied up with ends, goals, and purposes. In such cases, therefore, the deontological picture of ethical deliberation just doesn't fit.
The deontologist will no doubt respond by insisting that we can keep morality (as a source of moral principles) entirely separate from other domains (such as well-being) whenever we are reasoning about morals. This view entails that learning morality is just learning preexisting patterns of moral reasoning and learning how to apply them to concrete cases.
However, it is important to see that this is an empirical issue about the nature of human reasoning, and it cannot be decided a priori.
George Lakoff Sayings: When we use such metaphorically derived inference patterns to reason about morality, the principles we
The mechanism by which spirituality becomes passionate is metaphor. An ineffable God requires metaphor not only to be imagined but to be approached, exhorted, evaded, confronted, struggled with, and loved. Through metaphor, the vividness, intensity, and meaningfulness of ordinary experiences becomes the basis of a passionate spirituality. An ineffable God becomes vital through metaphor: The Supreme Being. The Prime Mover. The Creator. The Almighty. The Father. The King of Kings. Shepherd. Potter. Lawgiver. Judge. Mother. Lover. Breath.
The vehicle by which we are moved in passionate spirituality is metaphor. The mechanism of such metaphor is bodily. It is a neural mechanism that recruits our abilities to perceive, to move, to feel, and to envision in the service not only of theoretical and philosophical thought, but of spiritual experience.
George Lakoff Sayings: The mechanism by which spirituality becomes passionate is metaphor. An ineffable God requires metaphor not
That is why conservatives are attacking the infrastructure of public education in the country. They have no choice. They are up against an infrastructure full of nurturers, and they don't like it one bit - and they shouldn't like it one bit. George Lakoff Sayings: That is why conservatives are attacking the infrastructure of public education in the country. They
Incidentally, conservatives are attempting to destroy this system via "tort reform," the capping of damages at levels so low that the attorneys could no longer afford to function as police and prosecutors and the whole system would break down. Their motivation is to make the market "free" from the loss of profit through lawsuits for harming or defrauding the public. THE George Lakoff Sayings: Incidentally, conservatives are attempting to destroy this system via "tort reform," the capping of damages
The privatization of education means that conservatives can set up their own schools in which their children will not have to learn about anything that might be inconsistent with conservative morality and politics. It would also mean a move away from the integration of schools, which means that the children of conservatives would not have to encounter students from different subcultures with different values. School vouchers would make privatization that much easier. In George Lakoff Sayings: The privatization of education means that conservatives can set up their own schools in which
Why didn't the Democrats accomplish more right after the 2006 elections that gave them control of Congress? It wasn't just that they didn't have votes to override a presidential veto or block a filibuster. They didn't use their mandate to substantially change how the public--and the media-- thought about issues. They just tried to be rational, to devise programs to fit people's interests and the polls. Because there was little understanding of the brain, there was no campaign to change brains. Indeed, the very idea of "changing brains" sounds a little sinister to progressives-- a kind of Frankenstein image comes to mind. It sounds Machiavellian to liberals, like what the Republicans do. But "changing minds" in any deep way always requires changing brains. Once you understand a bit more about how brains work, you will understand that politics is very much about changing brains-- and that it can be highly moral and not the least bit sinister or underhanded. George Lakoff Sayings: Why didn't the Democrats accomplish more right after the 2006 elections that gave them control
There is no real person whose embodiment plays no role in meaning, whose meaning is purely objective and defined by the external world, and whose language can fit the external world with no significant role played by mind, brain, or body. Because our conceptual systems grow out of our bodies, meaning is grounded in and through our bodies. Because a vast range of our concepts are metaphorical, meaning is not entirely literal and the classical correspondence theory of truth is false. George Lakoff Sayings: There is no real person whose embodiment plays no role in meaning, whose meaning is
Conservatives have proposed cutting pension plans and benefits like contributions to health care. Think for a moment what pensions are: Pensions are delayed payments for work already done. If employees' pensions are cut, the company is stealing their money - money they have already earned. If the corporation says it can no longer pay "generous" benefits, then the company is cutting employees' salaries. "Benefits" are not gifts; "generosity" is not at issue. Benefits are part of pay for work. Corporations George Lakoff Sayings: Conservatives have proposed cutting pension plans and benefits like contributions to health care. Think for
We are proposing that the concepts that occur in metaphorical definitions are those that correspond to natural kinds of experience. Judging by the concepts that are defined by the metaphors we have uncovered so far, the following would be examples of concepts for natural kinds of experience in our culture: LOVE, TIME, IDEAS, UNDERSTANDING, ARGUMENTS, LABOR, HAPPINESS, HEALTH, CONTROL, STATUS, MORALITY, etc. These are concepts that require metaphorical definition, since they are not clearly enough delineated in their own terms to satisfy the purposes of our day-to-day functioning. George Lakoff Sayings: We are proposing that the concepts that occur in metaphorical definitions are those that correspond
Charles Fillmore has observed (in conversation) that English appears to have two contradictory organizations of time. In the first, the future is in front and the past is behind: In the weeks ahead of us . . . (future) That's all behind us now. (past) In the second, the future is behind and the past is in front: In the following weeks . . . (future) In the preceding weeks . . . (past) This appears to be a contradiction in the metaphorical organization of time. Moreover, the apparently contradictory metaphors can mix with no ill effect, as in We're looking ahead to the following weeks. Here it appears that ahead organizes the future in front, while following organizes it behind. George Lakoff Sayings: Charles Fillmore has observed (in conversation) that English appears to have two contradictory organizations of
The main concern of the frame is that money be kept in the common wealth (or the hands of the government) in order to be used for the common good. HOW George Lakoff Sayings: The main concern of the frame is that money be kept in the common wealth
Consider a cognitive scientist concerned with the empirical study of the mind, especially the cognitive unconscious, and ultimately committed to understanding the mind in terms of the brain and its neural structure. To such a scientist of the mind, Anglo-American approaches to the philosophy of mind and language of the sort discussed above seem odd indeed. The brain uses neurons, not languagelike symbols. Neural computation works by real-time spreading activation, which is neither akin to prooflike deductions in a mathematical
logic, nor like disembodied algorithms in classical artificial intelligence, nor like derivations in a transformational grammar.
George Lakoff Sayings: Consider a cognitive scientist concerned with the empirical study of the mind, especially the cognitive
Conservatives are also against unions and want to legislate them out of existence via what are called "right to work" laws. Such laws see employment through a Strict Father lens: as simply a matter of individual responsibility by the employee. Conservative enmity against unions follows from the moral hierarchy: Rich Over Poor; Employer Over Employee. Unions are actually agents of freedom - freedom from corporate servitude and wage slavery. Without unions, employees have to individually take what is offered, usually far less than they would get with a union: not just pay but worker safety, health care benefits, pensions, reasonable working conditions and hours, reasonable vacation time. What is "reasonable"? What the union members can negotiate. Unions create freedom. Austerity George Lakoff Sayings: Conservatives are also against unions and want to legislate them out of existence via what
Pragmatic political figures are sometimes called "moderate" or "middle of the road" because of their willingness to compromise. But the term "moderate" gives the false impression that there is a linear political continuum, with people distributed along it. The continuum metaphor hides the major role played by moral systems and the fact that pragmatic politicians in America are usually pragmatic versions of either liberals or conservatives. Not George Lakoff Sayings: Pragmatic political figures are sometimes called "moderate" or "middle of the road" because of their
Deeply embedded in conservative and liberal politics are different models of the family. Conservatism, as we shall see, is based on a Strict Father model, while liberalism is centered around a Nurturant Parent model. These two models of the family give rise to different moral systems and different discourse forms, that is, different choices of words and different modes of reasoning. Once George Lakoff Sayings: Deeply embedded in conservative and liberal politics are different models of the family. Conservatism, as
This contrasts sharply with the progressive view that markets must respect human dignity and serve the common good while pursuing profit. George Lakoff Sayings: This contrasts sharply with the progressive view that markets must respect human dignity and serve
Myth 7: Everyone Can Pull Himself or Herself Up by the Bootstraps. George Lakoff Sayings: Myth 7: Everyone Can Pull Himself or Herself Up by the Bootstraps.
Metaphor is thus imaginative rationality. George Lakoff Sayings: Metaphor is thus imaginative rationality.
Our categories arise from the fact that we are neural beings, from the nature of our bodily capacities, from our experience interacting in the world, and from our evolved capacity for basic-level categorization - a level at which we optimally interact with the world. Evolution has not required us to be as accurate above and below the basic level as at the basic level, and so we are not. George Lakoff Sayings: Our categories arise from the fact that we are neural beings, from the nature of
In a nurturant family, the issue of fair distribution concerns the whole family over its whole existence. Where unfairness has existed in the past, some unfairness in the present may be needed to balance things out and make things fair overall. The Nation As Family metaphor makes that true of a nation. Liberals George Lakoff Sayings: In a nurturant family, the issue of fair distribution concerns the whole family over its
It must be a world governed maximally by empathy, where the weak who need help get it from the strong. It must be a world governed as much as possible by bonds of affection, respect, and interdependence. Finally, it must be a world in which the nurturance provided to us by the natural environment is recognized, appreciated, and returned. In short, the natural world must be sustained, and we must do everything we can to sustain it. The George Lakoff Sayings: It must be a world governed maximally by empathy, where the weak who need help
If we are to know ourselves, philosophy needs to maintain an ongoing dialogue with the sciences of mind. George Lakoff Sayings: If we are to know ourselves, philosophy needs to maintain an ongoing dialogue with the
The "war on women" framing by liberal feminists reflects their experience that women are being harmed via purposeful acts by conservatives. But conservatives don't see themselves as conducting such a war. Instead they see themselves as simply acting morally according to the conservative moral worldview. In the strict father family, it is the father who determines what the women in the family should and should not do, sexually, reproductively, and with their bodies. Accordingly, men are above women in the conservative moral hierarchy. George Lakoff Sayings: The "war on women" framing by liberal feminists reflects their experience that women are being
The value of art, in Strict Father morality, lies either in its moral value, its entertainment value, its economic value, or its value as a success symbol - a sign of belonging to an elite. All George Lakoff Sayings: The value of art, in Strict Father morality, lies either in its moral value, its
The problem with classical disembodied scientific realism is that it takes two intertwined and inseparable dimensions of all experience - the awareness of the experiencing organism and the stable entities and structures it encounters - and erects them as separate and distinct entities called subjects and objects. What disembodied realism ... misses is that, as embodied, imaginative creatures, we never were separated or divorced from reality in the first place. What has always made science possible is our embodiment, not our transcendence of it, and our imagination, not our avoidance of it. George Lakoff Sayings: The problem with classical disembodied scientific realism is that it takes two intertwined and inseparable
Pragmatic conservatism is less idealistic than central conservatism. The goal is to get ahead, to serve your self-interest. The idealistic parts of conservatism are seen as effective means to achieve that goal. George Lakoff Sayings: Pragmatic conservatism is less idealistic than central conservatism. The goal is to get ahead, to
Conservatives don't merely want less government. They want to raise spending for the military - even bring back Star Wars - not reduce it. They want to build more prisons. There is no move to eliminate the drug enforcement agency. George Lakoff Sayings: Conservatives don't merely want less government. They want to raise spending for the military -
Since language is used for communicating thought, our view of language must also reflect our new understanding of the nature of thought. Language is at once a surface phenomenon and a source of power. It is a means of expressing, communicating, accessing, and even shaping thought. Words are defined relative to frames and conceptual metaphors. George Lakoff Sayings: Since language is used for communicating thought, our view of language must also reflect our
It is not that liberals are not concerned about the victims of crimes. Rather, they disagree about how crime is to be minimized overall. First, the rule of law must be upheld. If the state can act like a criminal, framing innocent people and trampling on the rights of the accused, then all hope for the rule of law is lost. To keep the state and its representatives - the police and the courts - honest, the rights of everyone accused of a crime must be upheld strictly. Fairness George Lakoff Sayings: It is not that liberals are not concerned about the victims of crimes. Rather, they